Castle's English Institute Nauenstrasse 63, Basel. 32 32 · email@example.com Montag - Freitag – Uhr. Burgdorf Castle. Oberhofen Castle. Landshut Castle. Stockalper Palace Brig-Glis. Wildegg Castle. Yverdon Castle. Kyburg Castle. Schloss Waldegg. Zug Castle. During a tour, you can immerse yourself in the life of the castle and experience how difficult it was in the Middle Ages. Many other castles and ruins along the.
Ihr Sprachprofi im In- und AuslandCastle ist eine US-amerikanische Krimiserie, die von 9. März bis Mai auf ABC lief. Sie umfasst acht Staffeln mit insgesamt Folgen. Im Mai. Numerous castles are found in the German state of Bavaria. These buildings, some of which have a history of over 1, years, were the setting for historical. During a tour, you can immerse yourself in the life of the castle and experience how difficult it was in the Middle Ages. Many other castles and ruins along the.
Castles Pop Culture VideoTop 10 Most Beautiful Castles On Earth - Part 1
Im Finale von Prison Break ist Film Oscar 2021 Scofield endlich in der Lage, Philip (Jrn Schlnvoigt) Astra 19 2 Einstellungen ihren Freunden wurde zu einem wahren Albtraum. - Palace NeuschwansteinDie restlichen Folgen wurden von Sat.
Some high concentrations of castles occur in secure places, while some border regions had relatively few castles.
It is likely that the castle evolved from the practice of fortifying a lordly home. The greatest threat to a lord's home or hall was fire as it was usually a wooden structure.
To protect against this, and keep other threats at bay, there were several courses of action available: create encircling earthworks to keep an enemy at a distance; build the hall in stone; or raise it up on an artificial mound, known as a motte, to present an obstacle to attackers.
A bank and ditch enclosure was a simple form of defence, and when found without an associated motte is called a ringwork; when the site was in use for a prolonged period, it was sometimes replaced by a more complex structure or enhanced by the addition of a stone curtain wall.
These features are seen in many surviving castle keeps, which were the more sophisticated version of halls. They allowed the garrison to control the surrounding area,  and formed a centre of administration, providing the lord with a place to hold court.
Building a castle sometimes required the permission of the king or other high authority. In the King of West Francia, Charles the Bald , prohibited the construction of castella without his permission and ordered them all to be destroyed.
This is perhaps the earliest reference to castles, though military historian R. Allen Brown points out that the word castella may have applied to any fortification at the time.
Switzerland is an extreme case of there being no state control over who built castles, and as a result there were 4, in the country.
From onwards, references to castles in texts such as charters increased greatly. Historians have interpreted this as evidence of a sudden increase in the number of castles in Europe around this time; this has been supported by archaeological investigation which has dated the construction of castle sites through the examination of ceramics.
Despite the common period in which castles rose to prominence in Europe, their form and design varied from region to region.
The introduction of castles to Denmark was a reaction to attacks from Wendish pirates, and they were usually intended as coastal defences.
Their decoration emulated Romanesque architecture , and sometimes incorporated double windows similar to those found in church bell towers.
Donjons, which were the residence of the lord of the castle, evolved to become more spacious. The design emphasis of donjons changed to reflect a shift from functional to decorative requirements, imposing a symbol of lordly power upon the landscape.
This sometimes led to compromising defence for the sake of display. This has been partly attributed to the higher cost of stone-built fortifications, and the obsolescence of timber and earthwork sites, which meant it was preferable to build in more durable stone.
At the same time there was a change in castle architecture. The towers would have protruded from the walls and featured arrowslits on each level to allow archers to target anyone nearing or at the curtain wall.
These later castles did not always have a keep, but this may have been because the more complex design of the castle as a whole drove up costs and the keep was sacrificed to save money.
The larger towers provided space for habitation to make up for the loss of the donjon. Where keeps did exist, they were no longer square but polygonal or cylindrical.
A peculiar feature of Muslim castles in the Iberian Peninsula was the use of detached towers, called Albarrana towers , around the perimeter as can be seen at the Alcazaba of Badajoz.
They were connected to the castle by removable wooden bridges, so if the towers were captured the rest of the castle was not accessible.
When seeking to explain this change in the complexity and style of castles, antiquarians found their answer in the Crusades. It seemed that the Crusaders had learned much about fortification from their conflicts with the Saracens and exposure to Byzantine architecture.
An example of this approach is Kerak. Although there were no scientific elements to its design, it was almost impregnable, and in Saladin chose to lay siege to the castle and starve out its garrison rather than risk an assault.
During the late 11th and 12th centuries in what is now south-central Turkey the Hospitallers , Teutonic Knights and Templars established themselves in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia , where they discovered an extensive network of sophisticated fortifications which had a profound impact on the architecture of Crusader castles.
Most of the Armenian military sites in Cilicia are characterized by: multiple bailey walls laid with irregular plans to follow the sinuosities of the outcrops; rounded and especially horseshoe-shaped towers; finely-cut often rusticated ashlar facing stones with intricate poured cores; concealed postern gates and complex bent entrances with slot machicolations; embrasured loopholes for archers; barrel, pointed or groined vaults over undercrofts, gates and chapels; and cisterns with elaborate scarped drains.
The castles they founded to secure their acquisitions were designed mostly by Syrian master-masons. Their design was very similar to that of a Roman fort or Byzantine tetrapyrgia which were square in plan and had square towers at each corner that did not project much beyond the curtain wall.
The keep of these Crusader castles would have had a square plan and generally be undecorated. While castles were used to hold a site and control movement of armies, in the Holy Land some key strategic positions were left unfortified.
Both Christians and Muslims created fortifications, and the character of each was different. Saphadin , the 13th-century ruler of the Saracens, created structures with large rectangular towers that influenced Muslim architecture and were copied again and again, however they had little influence on Crusader castles.
The orders were responsible for the foundation of sites such as Krak des Chevaliers , Margat , and Belvoir.
Design varied not just between orders, but between individual castles, though it was common for those founded in this period to have concentric defences.
The concept, which originated in castles such as Krak des Chevaliers, was to remove the reliance on a central strongpoint and to emphasise the defence of the curtain walls.
There would be multiple rings of defensive walls, one inside the other, with the inner ring rising above the outer so that its field of fire was not completely obscured.
If assailants made it past the first line of defence they would be caught in the killing ground between the inner and outer walls and have to assault the second wall.
For instance, it was common in Crusader castles to have the main gate in the side of a tower and for there to be two turns in the passageway, lengthening the time it took for someone to reach the outer enclosure.
It is rare for this bent entrance to be found in Europe. One of the effects of the Livonian Crusade in the Baltic was the introduction of stone and brick fortifications.
Although there were hundreds of wooden castles in Prussia and Livonia , the use of bricks and mortar was unknown in the region before the Crusaders.
Until the 13th century and start of the 14th centuries, their design was heterogeneous, however this period saw the emergence of a standard plan in the region: a square plan, with four wings around a central courtyard.
Arrowslits did not compromise the wall's strength, but it was not until Edward I's programme of castle building that they were widely adopted in Europe.
The Crusades also led to the introduction of machicolations into Western architecture. Although machicolations performed the same purpose as the wooden galleries, they were probably an Eastern invention rather than an evolution of the wooden form.
Conflict and interaction between the two groups led to an exchange of architectural ideas, and Spanish Christians adopted the use of detached towers.
The Spanish Reconquista , driving the Muslims out of the Iberian Peninsula, was complete in These were the men who built all the most typical twelfth-century fortified castles remaining to-day".
The new castles were generally of a lighter build than earlier structures and presented few innovations, although strong sites were still created such as that of Raglan in Wales.
At the same time, French castle architecture came to the fore and led the way in the field of medieval fortifications. Artillery powered by gunpowder was introduced to Europe in the s and spread quickly.
Handguns, which were initially unpredictable and inaccurate weapons, were not recorded until the s.
These guns were too heavy for a man to carry and fire, but if he supported the butt end and rested the muzzle on the edge of the gun port he could fire the weapon.
The gun ports developed in this period show a unique feature, that of a horizontal timber across the opening. A hook on the end of the gun could be latched over the timber so the gunner did not have to take the full recoil of the weapon.
This adaptation is found across Europe, and although the timber rarely survives, there is an intact example at Castle Doornenburg in the Netherlands.
Gunports were keyhole shaped, with a circular hole at the bottom for the weapon and a narrow slit on top to allow the gunner to aim.
This form is very common in castles adapted for guns, found in Egypt, Italy, Scotland, and Spain, and elsewhere in between.
Defences against guns were not developed until a later stage. In an effort to make them more effective, guns were made ever bigger, although this hampered their ability to reach remote castles.
By the s guns were the preferred siege weapon, and their effectiveness was demonstrated by Mehmed II at the Fall of Constantinople.
The response towards more effective cannons was to build thicker walls and to prefer round towers, as the curving sides were more likely to deflect a shot than a flat surface.
While this sufficed for new castles, pre-existing structures had to find a way to cope with being battered by cannon. An earthen bank could be piled behind a castle's curtain wall to absorb some of the shock of impact.
Often, castles constructed before the age of gunpowder were incapable of using guns as their wall-walks were too narrow. A solution to this was to pull down the top of a tower and to fill the lower part with the rubble to provide a surface for the guns to fire from.
Lowering the defences in this way had the effect of making them easier to scale with ladders. A more popular alternative defence, which avoided damaging the castle, was to establish bulwarks beyond the castle's defences.
These could be built from earth or stone and were used to mount weapons. Around , the innovation of the angled bastion was developed in Italy.
From this evolved star forts , also known as trace italienne. The first was ugly and uncomfortable and the latter was less secure, although it did offer greater aesthetic appeal and value as a status symbol.
The second choice proved to be more popular as it became apparent that there was little point in trying to make the site genuinely defensible in the face of cannon.
However, it has been estimated that between 75, and , were built in western Europe;  of these around 1, were in England and Wales  and around 14, in German-speaking areas.
Some true castles were built in the Americas by the Spanish and French colonies. Augustine, Florida the Spanish build the Castillo de San Marcos Spanish for "St.
Mark's Castle". George Shultz, Former Secretary of State Who Worked Under 3 Presidents, Dead at Stock Expert Issues Rare "Home Run Buy" Alert.
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And new castles are regularly being added! I hope you'll like it. What is listed? Only castles and other fortifications which I've personally visited during my holidays and spare time.